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  • Overview of the SAP BI ABAP
      Introduction to SAP
      Introduction to ERP
      Overview of SAP
      SAP modules at a Glance
  • ABAP Data Types
      Numeric Character
      Floating Point
      Packed Decimals
      Date, Strings
  • Loops & Branches
      Do, Do n times, While
      If, If Else, if Ladder, Case
      Small Programs
      Factorial program
      Code Inspector
      Extended Program Check
  • Structures & Internal Tables
      Over View of Structures
      Similar Structures creation
      Different Structures
      Different structures with Extra Fields
      Over View of Internal Tables
      Similar Internal tables creation
      Different Internal tables
      Different Internal tables with Extra Fields
      Modify Operation on Internal Table
      Delete Operation on Internal Tables
  • Sorting Of internal tables ( Sort) & Searching Techniques Of internal Table
      Sorting Of internal tables ( Sort)
      Searching Techniques Of internal Table
  • Landscape & SAP R/3 Architecture Landscape Model
      Landscape & SAP R/3 Architecture
      Landscape Model
      Overview of R/3
  • Normalization & Select Statements
      Normalization & Select Statements
      Over view of Normalization
      Select Statements
      Logical operators
      Select Single & Up to 1 rows
      Nested Select queries
      For all Entries
      Join Statements
      Inner join & Left Outer Join
  • Modularization Techniques
      Over view of Modularization
      Function Modules
  • Selection Screen Design
      Over View of Selection Screen
      Selection Screen elements
  • Data Dictionary
      Creation of Data Base Table
      Creation of Domains
      Creation of Data types
      Creation of Views
      Creation of Structures
      Creation of Type pools
      Creation of Search Help
      Creation of Lock objects
      Creation of table maintenance
  • User Exists Over view
      Cross Applications RFC
      Over view of CA
      Creation of RFC
      Fetching Data Using RFC
      over View Of BAPI
      Remote FM Creation
      Creation of BOR
      Creation of BAPI
      Check The Status of BAPI
      Super type Creation
  • LSMW
      Over view of LSMW
      Creation of Project , Sub Project , Object Type
      Creation of Batch Input Using Recording Mode
      Steps To Create LSMW


    • SAP application programming is used for various purposes in an enterprise. These are developed using SAP ABAP. SAP ABAP is a language used for developing, testing, debugging SAP applications.
    • ABAP stands for Allgemeiner Berichtsaufbereitungs prozessor, and is translated in English as Advanced Business Application Programming. .It is a programming language for developing applications for the SAP system.
    • SAP ABAP is a high level programming language for SAP application server and NetWeaver platform for developing business applications.
    • The task of ABAP programmer is to develop programs for SAP application module. This needs through knowledge of SAP Development tools. The SAP ABAP programmer not only develops but enhances the features of various functionalities. The programmer also implements technical architecture surrounding the package.
      With the increase in number of BI/BW/BO implementations, many projects need specialized BI-ABAP resources on the technical side to customize the functionality by implementation of BADI/Userexits, debug the extraction/ load process, write the conversion routines, transformation routines, start routines etc.The BI system uses certain special tools and transactions in ABAP to help the developers and BI-ABAP for ABAP Professionals.This course is mainly geared towards providing an overview of the BI system to the candidates and then help them learn the special tools and techniques for working in BI. The overview helps the candidates to understand how the BI system works, its architecture and get a hang of the jargon related to BI/BW like Info-objects, info cubes, DTP, Info packages etc.This will also provide a platform to allow the ABAP professionals to leverage their existing knowledge of SAP and combine that the knowledge from this course to get into more details on the BI projects and use it for making a subsequent switch in to functional side.Basic Configuration for Connecting SAP BI and SAP ABAP Systems

      Use this wizard-based configuration task to configure the basic settings required for connecting SAP BI and SAP ABAP systems.

    • Automatic Configuration
    • To carry out the wizard-based configuration task required for your SAP system, use the configuration wizard in the SAP NetWeaver Administrator.
    • Start the configuration wizard. For more information, see Configuration Wizard.
    • Under Show, choose All Configuration Tasks.
    • Select NW: BI – AS ABAP (Basic Configuration): Maintain and choose Start.
    • If required, enter the necessary data and choose Next.
    • A list of the steps to be executed by the configuration wizard is displayed under Details. The steps are executed one after the other. The system makes the necessary settings and reports any configuration errors.
      Defining Client AdministrationThis activity allows you to change customizing settings.Perform the following steps in both the SAP BI system and the SAP Business Suite system.Procedure
    • Log on to your SAP BI system in English.
    • Call transaction SSC4 and choose Display – Change.
    • Confirm the warning message Caution: The table is cross client.
    • Select your client and choose Details.
    • In the Change View Clients: Details screen, select the following settings:
    • Automatic recording of changes
    • Changes to Repository and cross-client Customizing allowed
    • eCATT and CATT allowed
    • Save your entries.
    • Perform steps 1 to 6 in your SAP Business system.
      Activating Services in the BI (ABAP) System Use Before using services relevant for BI Java in the portal, you need to activate them.Procedure
    • 1. In the BI system, call transaction SICF.
    • 2. Choose SERVICE as the hierarchy type.
    • 3. Choose Execute.
    • 4. Under default_host (Virtueller Default Host), select the following services and activate them by choosing Activate Service in each service’s context menu:
    • sap – > bw – > BEx
    • sap – > bc – > gui – > sap – > its – > webgui


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      • What is table partition?
          SAP is using fact table partitioning to improve the performance. you can partition only on 0CALMONTH or 0FISCPER
      • How would you convert a info package group into a process chain?
          Double Click on the info package grp, click on the ‘Process Chain Maint’ button and type in the name and description; the individual info packages are inserted automatically.
      • How do you replace a query result from a master query to a child query?
          If you select characteristic value with replacement path then it used the results from previous query; for ex: let us assume that u have query Q1 which displays the top 10 customers, we have query Q2 which gets the top 10 customers for info object 0customer with as a variable with replacement path and display detailed report on the customers list passed from Q1.
      • What is modeling?
          It is an art of designing the data base. The design of DB depends on the schema and the schema is defined as representation of tables and their relationships.
      • What is an info cube?
          Info cube is structured as star schema (extended) where a fact table is surrounded by different dim table that are linked with DIM-ids. And the data wise, you will have aggregated data in the cubes.
      • How would you optimize the dimensions?
          We should define as many dimensions as possible and we have to take care that no single dimension crosses more than 20% of the fact table size.
      • What are Conversion Routines for units and currencies in the update rule?
        Using this option we can write ABAP code for Units / Currencies conversion. If we enable this flag then unit of Key Figure appears in the ABAP code as an additional parameter. For example, we can convert units in Pounds to Kilos.
      • Can an InfoObject be an InfoProvider, how and why?
        Yes, when we want to report on Characteristics or Master Data. We have to right click on the InfoArea and select ‘Insert characteristic as data target’. For example, we can make 0CUSTOMER as an InfoProvider and report on it.
      • What is extended star schema?
          In Extended Star Schema, under the BW star schema model, the dimension table does not contain master data. But it is stored externally in the master data tables (texts, attributes, hierarchies).
          The characteristic in the dimensional table points to the relevant master data by the use of SID table. The SID table points to characteristics attribute texts and hierarchies.
          This multistep navigational task adds extra overhead when executing a query. However the benefit of this model is that all fact tables (info cubes) share common master data tables between several info cubes.
          Moreover the SID table concept allows users to implement multi languages and multi hierarchy OLAP environments. And also it supports slowly changing dimension.
          delete a BEx query that is in Production system through request.
          A) Using the RSZDELETE transaction
      • How would you optimize the dimensions?
          We should define as many dimensions as possible and we have to take care that no single dimension crosses more than 20% of the fact table size.
      • What are Conversion Routines for units and currencies in the update rule?
          Using this option we can write ABAP code for Units / Currencies conversion. If we enable this flag then unit of Key Figure appears in the ABAP code as an additional parameter. For example, we can convert units in Pounds to Kilos.
      • Can an InfoObject be an InfoProvider, how and why?
          Yes, when we want to report on Characteristics or Master Data. We have to right click on the InfoArea and select ‘Insert characteristic as data target’. For example, we can make 0CUSTOMER as an InfoProvider and report on it.
      • What is Open Hub Service?
          The Open Hub Service enables us to distribute data from an SAP BW system into external Data Marts, analytical applications, and other applications. We can ensure controlled distribution using several systems. The central object for exporting data is the InfoSpoke. We can define the source and the target object for the data. BW becomes a hub of an enterprise data warehouse. The distribution of data becomes clear through central monitoring from the distribution status in the BW system.
      • How do you transform Open Hub Data?
          Using BADI we can transform Open Hub Data according to the destination requirement.
      • What is ODS?
          Operational DataSource is used for detailed storage of data. We can overwrite data in the ODS. The data is stored in transparent tables.
      • What are BW Statistics and what is its use?
          They are group of Business Content InfoCubes which are used to measure performance for Query and Load Monitoring. It also shows the usage of aggregates, OLAP and Warehouse management.
      • What are the steps to extract data from R/3?
          Replicate DataSources
          Assign InfoSources
          Maintain Communication Structure and Transfer rules
          Create and InfoPackage
          Load Data
      • What are the delta options available when you load from flat file?
          The 3 options for Delta Management with Flat Files:
          Full Upload
          New Status for Changed records (ODS Object only)
          Additive Delta (ODS Object & InfoCube)
      • What are the extractor types?
          Application Specific
          BW Content FI, HR, CO, SAP CRM, LO Cockpit
          Customer-Generated Extractors
          LIS, FI-SL, CO-PA
          Cross Application (Generic Extractors)
          DB View, InfoSet, Function Module
      • What are the steps involved in LO Extraction?
          The steps are:
          RSA5 Select the DataSources
          LBWE Maintain DataSources and Activate Extract Structures
          LBWG Delete Setup Tables
          0LI*BW Setup tables
          RSA3 Check extraction and the data in Setup tables
          LBWQ Check the extraction queue
          LBWF Log for LO Extract Structures
          RSA7 BW Delta Queue Monitor
      • How to create a connection with LIS InfoStructures?
          LBW0 Connecting LIS InfoStructures to BW
      • What is the difference between ODS and InfoCube and MultiProvider?
          ODS: Provides granular data, allows overwrite and data is in transparent tables, ideal for drilldown and RRI.
          CUBE: Follows the star schema, we can only append data, ideal for primary reporting.
          MultiProvider: Does not have physical data. It allows to access data from different InfoProviders (Cube, ODS, InfoObject). It is also preferred for reporting.
      • What are Start routines, Transfer routines and Update routines?
          Start Routines: The start routine is run for each DataPackage after the data has been written to the PSA and before the transfer rules have been executed. It allows complex computations for a key figure or a characteristic. It has no return value. Its purpose is to execute preliminary calculations and to store them in global DataStructures. This structure or table can be accessed in the other routines. The entire DataPackage in the transfer structure format is used as a parameter for the routine.
          Transfer / Update Routines: They are defined at the InfoObject level. It is like the Start Routine. It is independent of the DataSource. We can use this to define Global Data and Global Checks.
      • What is the difference between start routine and update routine, when, how and why are they called?
          Start routine can be used to access InfoPackage while update routines are used while updating the Data Targets.
      • What is Star Schema?
          In Star Schema model, Fact table is surrounded by dimensional tables. Fact table is usually very large, that means it contains millions to billions of records. On the other hand dimensional tables are very small. Hence they contain a few thousands to few million records. In practice, Fact table holds transactional data and dimensional table holds master data.
          The dimensional tables are specific to a fact table. This means that dimensional tables are not shared to across other fact tables. When other fact table such as a product needs the same product dimension data another dimension table that is specific to a new fact table is needed.
          This situation creates data management problems such as master data redundancy because the very same product is duplicated in several dimensional tables instead of sharing from one single master data table. This problem can be solved in extended star schema.
      • What is slowly changing dimension?
          Dimensions those changes with time are called slowly changing dimension.
      • What is fact table?
          Fact table is the collection if facts and relations that means foreign keys with the dimension. Actually fact table holds transactional data.
      • What is dimension table?
          Dimension table is a collection of logically related descriptive attributes that means characteristics.
      • How many tables does info cube contain?
          Actually info cube contains two tables. E table and F (fact) table.
      • What is the maximum no. of dimensions in info cube?
          16(3 are sap defines and 13 are customer defined)
      • What are the minimum no of dimensions in info cube?
          4(3 Sap defined and 1 customer defined).
      • What are the 3SAP defined dimensions?
          The 3 SAP defined dimensions are …
          1. Data packet dimension (P)…it contains 3characteristics.a) request Id (b) Record type (c) Change run id
          2. Time dimension (T) contains time characteristics such as 0calmonth, 0calday etc
          3. Unit Dimension (U).it contains basically amount and quantity related units.
      • What is the model of the info cube?
          Info cube model is extended star schema.
      • What are the data types for the characteristic info object?
          There are 4types:
          1. CHAR
          2. NUMC
          3. DATS
          4. TIMS
      • How you’ll write date in BW?
      • What is the difference between open sql & native sql?
          Open SQL allows you to access all database tables known to the SAP system, regardless of the database manufacturer. Sometimes, however, we may want to use database-specific SQL statements called Native SQL in your ABAP/4 program.
          To avoid incompatibilities between different database tables and also to make ABAP/4 programs independent of the database system in use, SAP has created a set of separate SQL statements called Open SQL. Open SQL contains a subset of standard SQL statements as well as some enhancements which are specific to SAP.
          A database interface translates SAP’s Open SQL statements into SQL commands specific to the database in use. Native SQL statements access the database directly.
      • What is Primary key, foreign key ? what is primary index? secondary index?
          Primary index: the primary index contains key fiels of a table and a pointer to non-key fields of the table. The primary index is created automatically when a table is created in database and moreover you can further define reference to the primary index which are known as Secondary index.
      • How many indexes can be created for a table?
      • What is data class?
          The data class specifies in which table space the table is created in database.
      • What is pooled table in sap?
          A pool table has many to one relation with the table in the database. For one table in the database there are many tables in the dictionary. Tha table in the database has a diff name than in the table in the data dict, it has diff no of fields and field names are different. A pooled table is stored in the pool at the database level. A table pool is a databse table with a special struct that enables the data of many R3 tables to be stored in it. It can hold only pooled tables.
      • What is transparent table?
          A transparent table has a one to one relataionship in the database. The table in the dictionary has the same name, same no of fields, and the fields have the same name as in the R3 table defn. A transparent tabel has application data (Master and Transaction).
      • What is a buffer and how many types?
          Buffer is othing but which stores data temporarily. there are two types of buffers. they are Roll and
            Page areas.
          Pages : it stores the application data.
          Roll area: it stores the data of previous pages. Data areas of used programs are created in roll areas for each internal session.
      • What is table maintenance generator and how to create that? What is the transaction code?
          Table maintanence generator is nothing but making a table available for adding records and deleting records. The transaction code used is SM30.
      • How to add new fields to a standard sap table?
          1. Appended structures 2. Customizing tables
      • What are lock objects?
          Lock objects are nothing but which holds a data for particular field value until you remove a lock..
      • What is the use of start-of-selection event?
          Start-of-selection is called implicity even it is not used in the program. start-of-selection is triggered after the standard selection screen has been displayed.
      • What is the difference between end-of-page and end-of-selection?
          End-of-page : is footer of the page. End-of-selection: is triggered At the end of the processing block.
      • How to create a button in selection screen?
          Using parametres
      • Can you call a bdc program from a report? how?
          Yes through Submit and return
      • Can you call a transaction from a report? how?
          Yes Using Call transaction and leave to.
      • What are ALV reports? how they are different from normal reports?
          these reports are used to find subtotals and totals in a report. If you want i’ll give you an example program
      • What is the use of SLIS type pool in alv reports?
          Slis type pool is a global defination of pooltypes of catalog structure, table and layout which we use in ALV reports
      • Difference between top-of-page and top-of-page during at-line- selection?
          Top-of-page is a header on primary list. Top-of-page during line-selection is a header on secondary lists
      • How many type of internal tables are there?
          Standard, Hashed, Sorted tables
      • What is the difference between hashed & sorted internal tables?
          Sorted internal table works on Binary Search and Hashed internal tables works on hashed alogorthim through indexes.
      • What is the difference between standard and sorted internal tables? (in performance wise)
          Sorted table improve the performance in case of a huge table which has no: of records
      • When do you need to create an internal table with header line? and with out a header line? line?
          If we don’t want to use any explicit work area then its better to go for an internal table with header line.
      • Which of these methods can be best used in background process?
          Batch Input method.
      • What is direct input method?What does an EXEC SQL stmt do in ABAP? What is the disadvantage of using it?
          Exec Sql[Performing

            [Native sql statements]
            The above is the syntax for the native sql statements.
            Syntax check is not done to statements written inside the EXEC SQL statements.
        1. What are selection texts?
            in the selection screen you can change the name of the field,title etc using selection texts. go to text-> text elemets-> selection texts in the menu bar to set selection texts.
        2. What is the client concept in SAP? What is the meaning of client independent?How to find the return code of a statement in ABAP programs?
            Through functions.
        3. What are steps you follow to improve the performance of a report?
            1) USe select fields statements (not select *)
            2) Use views rather than tables
            3) Don’t use nested Select.
        4. What is the role of ST05 in performance tuning?
            SQL trace